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3D Printing

      Three dimensional (3D) printers are, in fact, of computer numerical control (CNC) machines family that produce 3D files designed on the computer, by additive manufacturing and layer deposition technique. First generation of 3D printers with SLA technology came to market on 1988. At the time being, we witness 3D printers in most fields of manufacturing and life all around the world. Highlights of the technology application are as follows:

Industry

  • Prototyping of industrial parts and assemblies
  • Foundry patterns and moulds
  • Rapid prototyping in reverse engineering projects (in combination with 3D scanning)

Architecture and Construction

  • Making scaled down architectural maquettes
  • Building full scale printing
  • Making city monuments
  • Assembling multilevel crossroads, dam, bridge, wharf and dock as scaled down

Medicine

  • Manufacturing of orthosis, prosthesis, splint and orthopedic accessories
  • Making surgery prostheses
  • Dental positive/negative moulding, Making chrome-cobalt prostheses
  • Orthodontics

Miscellaneous Services

  • Design and manufacturing of gems, jewellery and ornaments
  • Making 3D animation characters
  • Cake, chocolate and food printing

      3D printers are able to reproduce every solid body of any shape, angle and design (filled in, empty, flat, curved,…) and do not confront traditional production problems. These problems that appear as undercuts in casting or inaccessibility to lower surfaces in machining can cause disasters in the production. Time consumption of mockup printing can be resolved with printing the peripheral form of them only.

      There is a vastly used and low-price type of 3D printers, called home printers in which melting of polymer or herbal base plastics is utilized in order to print the required solids. Another type known as industrial printers has capability of printing by metals, liquid resins, ceramic paste, or even edible material. Main differences between 3D printers are generally referred to surface finish, dimensional precision, and diversity of consuming material. The vacant between industrial and home 3D printers is filled with semi-industrial printers. Currently they are in the market; can provide quite appropriate precision, and work with diverse and cheap materials.

      Several techniques are used in manufacturing by means of additive manufacturing or 3D printing. Some of these methods together with the abbreviation are listed below:

Technology Abbreviation Technique Scheme
Material extrusion FDM Filament melting and extrusion
Photopolymer resin solidification SLA Cured with laser
DLP Cured with projector
CDLP Cured with LED and oxygen
Material jetting MJ Cured with UV light
NPJ Cured with heat
DOD Milled to form
Powder bed fusion MJF Fused with agent and energy
DMLS/SLM Fused with laser
SLS Fused with laser
EBM Fused with electron beam
Binder jetting BJ Joined with bonding agent
Direct energy deposition EBAM Fused with electron beam
LENS Fused with laser
3dp-sheet-lamination-لایه-لایه-سازی-صفحات Sheet lamination LOM Lamina made up of laminates